The word diabetes signifies persistent increase of secretion of urine. Common people generally associate this word with diabetes mellitus though there are different types of diabetes. The diabetes mellitus is a condition characterised by high level of sugar in blood and urine, increased urination and increased intake of both fluid and food and in most cases by a relative absolute deficiency of insulin. Insulin controls the sugar level of blood and its deficiency can allow elevation of blood sugar. There is another type of diabetes known as diabetes insipidus in which there is excessive ingestion of water by the patient and frequent urination without elevation of sugar in urine. Diabetes mellitus is not merely an insulin deficiency disease but comprises a number of other changes in the organism that lead to mal-function of pancreas.
Diabetes mellitus is a clinical syndrome characterised mainly by polyuria, polydipsia and polyphagia due to absolute deficiency of insulin or diminished biologic effectiveness of it. There are two types of diabetes mellitus:
a) Insulin dependent Diabetes mellitus or type I.
b) Noninsulin dependent Diabetes mellitus or type II.
a) Non-pancreatic endocrinal disorder as in acromegaly, Cushing’s syndrome , thyrotoxicosis etc.
b) Pancreatic disorder like chronic pancreatitis, carcinoma of paccreas, haemochromatosis, pancreatic calculi.
c) Gastational diabetes.
d) Introgenic i.e. after use of thiazide diuretics, steroids, contraceptive pills.
Primary diabetes mellitus is heterogenous disorder and the cause of islet cell dysfunctionis far from clear in most of the cases. The important factors are as follows:
i) Age: It occurs chiefly in middle aged persons, 50% of the cases are first diagnosed at the age of 50 years.
ii) Sex: Bothe sexes suffer equally but in lower age group males and middle age group females are more affected.
iii) Heredity: It may run in families but there is a conflicting evidence for mode of inheritance.
iv) Obesity: Many maturity onset diabetics are obese but still it is not settled whether it has a cause or effect relationship. Two major mechanism have been proposed for the tissue insensitivity to insulin in cases of obesity such as , prolonged beta cell stimulation may lead to hyper-insulinism giving rise to receptor insensitivity or, there may be a post receptor defect.
v) Stress and Strain: Physical as well as mental stress and strain may be responsible at least in precipitating the latent from the disease.
vi) Infection: Seasonal variation with winter and autumn peaks of increased incidence of diabetes have been described. These possibly indicate some environmental factors or infective factors in the causation of diabetes.
vii) Histocompatibility Antigen: – Studies of histocompability antigen have been focussed on chromosome 6 and antigens DW3, DW4, B6, BW15 and BW16 in juvenile diabetes mellitus but not in maturity onset diabetes.
viii) Autoimmune Mechanism: – Diabetes is seen to be associated with various autoimmune disease such as Myxoedema and Addison’s disease. Pancreatic islet cell antibodies have been found with multi-endocrine autoimmune diseases.
Onset of diabetes is usually gradual but rarely there may be acute onset. There may be no sign and symptom and the disease may be diagnosed during routine investigation or test such as for preoperative check up. Sometimes patients may present features of complications of diabetes, such as peripheral neuritis, retinopathy, nephropathy, recurrent carbuncle etc. Again in some patient particularly in Insulin dependent Diabetes mellitus (IDDM) cases, the classical features of diabetes may be seen as under: –
a) Polyuria: the amount of urine may be several litres in a day. This is due to excessive sugar in the urine which acts as a diuretic. There may be nocturia also.
b) Polydipsia: – It means excessive thirst. Patient may consume several litres of water in a day to reduce the thirst. That is obviously the effect of poliuria.
c) Polyphagia: – It means the excessive hunger. Patient always feels hungry and may have a craving for carbohydrate food, sweet, honey, sugar etc. This symptom is due to non utilisation of sugar for energy expenditure.
d) Rapid emaciation: – There may be rapid loss of weight and diabetes always be considered as an important cause of it. This is due to tissue starvation, neo-glucogenesis and mobilisation of fat from fat depot.
e) Dryness of mouth and throat: – This is the effect of polyuria.
f) Intense itching: – This is an important symptom and is located in the anus or external genitalia.
g) Constipation: -Individuals are suffering from constipation, the stool becomes hard and bowel movement may take place after every 2 or 3 days.
Whenever diabetes is suspected the diagnosis should be confirm by GTT (Glucose Tolerance Test) or more easily by post prandial (PP) blood sugar estimation. The normal fasting blood sugar level varies from 80 mg to 120 mg % but the true glucose level will be less than this. No reliance should be made on a normal fasting blood sugar level as to exclude diabetes but if it is higher than 120 mg, % the existence of diabetes is almost sure. A simple diagnostic criterion is based on the post prandial sugar estimation, i.e. two hours after meal, which should not be more than 140 mg, % in a normal individual. If it is more than 180 mg /100 cc, a diagnostic of diabetes mellitus can be made with certainty. In diabetic subjects when the blood sugar level crosses the renal threshold level of 180 mg % sugar appears in the urine.
For proper management of the disease, it is necessary that the intake of carbohydrate or sugar should be considerably reduced although the intake of protein can be increased. Proper exercise especially long walks are absolutely necessary which stimulate production of insulin in the body. There have many symptomatic homeopathic medicines to control the blood sugar as well as diabetes. Proper selection of remedies only can give an individual a proper solution. Some important remedies can be named here as Syzygium jum., Uranium nit., Acid Phos, Cephalandra ind., Gymnema Sylv, Nat. Sulph, Nat. Mur, etc. The magnets should be applied regularly to the soles of the feet daily in the morning. In addition, another sitting can be taken by applying north pole of a magnet to the point, a little below the inner malleolus on the right side and south pole to the point situated about 3 to 4 cm lateral to the midline(see, Human Anatomy) at the level of eleventh thoracic vertebra. Taking of both pole magnetised water thrice a day is quite essential for the patient of diabetes. A magnet therapist can suggest more other application as per their experience.