Eczema is an inflammatory acute and chronic disease of the skin in which clusters of tiny elevated eruptions are found. These eruptions may secrete a fluid pus which may dry into scabs. The skin condition is generally accompanied by burning and itching. There are different types of eczema depending upon the causative factors.
Eczema a type of itching dermatosis characterised by pruritus and chronicity due to antigen antibody reaction manifesting on skin associated with intra-and inter-cellular oedema. The word Eczema means flowing over. Common inflammatory changes like heat, redness, swelling, pain and loss of function may be seen.
Contact of various agents may keep rise to Eczema. These are either primary irritant such as, acids, alkalis etc. or maybe secondary allergens such as, penicillin, streptomycin, lipstick, nail varnish, here dyes, plants or flowers. Impetigo or ring worm may be complicated by eczematous changes. Other factors like genetic, dietetic and exacerbating factors like heat, humidity, dryness also plays some role. In atopic eczema serum IgE level is raised. When Asmara present in addition this level is further elevated and may causes the increase of chance of eczema.
There are different types of eczema depending upon the causative factor. Accordingly it is called atopic eczema if due to ingestion of or contact with the substance to which an individual is sensitive, while it is parasitic eczema if due to presence of a parasite, and solar eczema if due to exposure to the burn producing wavelength of the sunlight, etc. their numerous causes assigned to eczema, the most important of a being inheritance. In addition, it may be caused by frequent chemical irritants, intestinal disturbances or even vaccination in infants and young children. Generally, ill-nourished children and adults belong to poor families are more prone to this disease.
i) Adult eczema: during the acute stage there is erythema which is soon followed by vesicles which are intensely itching and type. The Flexors of the neck, elbow, wrist, knee, ankle and inguinal area are commonly affected. Gradually, the exudates are dried up and crusts are formed. Secondary infection may develop. From time to time fresh exacerbations may occur when oozing make take race from these patches. This face called the sub-acute stage of eczema. Gradually the skin will be thickened and pigmented. This is the chronic stage of eczema.
ii) Contact eczema: it is very common and the causes are mentioned earlier.
iii) Napkin rash: these occur on the napkin area of the infants and the irritant is possibly the Eugene and faeces.
iv) Childhood eczema: Skin-folds of different parts of the body of the older children are affected by these type of eczema.
v) Infantile eczema: this occurs in infants who have allergy to foreign proteins and are suffering of Asmara, hay-fever etc. Facial skin is fast affected with erythema, weeping or scale formation. These may have eczematous patches on the flexors aspect of the limbs called Besnier’s prurigo.
i) Pompholyx: this is a type of eczema where the sides of fingers and toes, palms and soles show irritant vesicle. Bigger vesicles may also develop. History of atropine is usually absent. This is commonly seen in year-long age groups.
ii) Numular Eczema: this is commonly seen in aged individuals. Lower limbs are commonly affected particularly in association with venous engorgement. Rounded or coin like papular lesions are seen.
iii) Exogenous eczema: there is usually a cell mediated immune response. This is of two types such as, primary exogenous eczema and contact dermatitis. In the former type decreasing of the skin is seen. Industrial workers and housewife are at risk as the calm in contact with various allergens. In the contact dermatitis type cell mediated immune response of type IV is seen. The subject remains sensitive all throughout life.
Proper hygiene, regular bath and proper cleaning of the skin are important in preventing this disease. The persons prone to eczema should avoid heavy and reach food as also use of spices, pickles, acidic food, shell fish, meat, coffee, tea and alcohol. Fruits and vegetables rich in vitamin A and C should be taken regularly. In debilitated cases, cod liver oil is of great help. The homoeopathic treatment is no doubt the best treatment of the eczema. But the proper case taking and selection of proper remedy is the crucial factor. We may name here some important homoeopathic remedies for eczema. Rhus tox, Graphities, Nat Mur, Acid Sulph, Pulsatilla, Psorinum, Arsenic iod, Lycopodium, Borax, Hydrastis can, Sulphur, Hepar Sulph and many other homeopathic medicines are used to cure the eczema. For radical cure of eczema, with the administration of homeopathic remedies magnet therapy should be done. In case of the eczema in the upper portion of the body, the general applications of magnets to the palms of hands should be carried out and in case it is in the lower portion of the body, the magnets should be applied to the soles of the feet. The application of magnets directly over the patches of eczema should be avoided. Otherwise the magnets may be applied in proper acupuncture points may be great helpful. Magnetise water should be taken thrice daily to help rid the blood of the pus and toxic bodies.