Malaria symptoms and treatment

What is malaria? Or, what are the causes of malaria fever? Or, what is the malaria symptoms and treatment? To overcome the above question we are now going to some description about malaria. Malaria is caused by four types of pathogenic malaria parasites which are sporozoa of the genus Plasmodium introduced in the human body by the bite of female Anopheles mosquito. Those are Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium malariae, Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale. As the parasites enters human body during bites of infected female Annapolis mosquito hence the presents of these mosquito in any area is the real warning. Infection may also occur via blood transfusion, improperly sterilized syringes or deflected placental circulation. So, before discussing about malaria symptoms and treatment we must know about what is malaria.

What is malaria?

Malaria is a protozoan disease transmitted to man by the bite of female Annapolis mosquitoes and its causative organism is genus Plasmodium.
There are four species known to infect the human beings. Those are:
i) Plasmodium vivax: it causes Benign tertian (BT) malaria. The word ‘tertian’ means it occurring in each third day.
ii) Plasmodium Malarie: it causes Quartan (QT) malaria. The word ‘quartan’ means it occurring at each fourth day.
iii) Plasmodium falciparum: it causes malignant tertian (MT) malaria.
iv) Plasmodium ovale: it causes tertian malaria and it is relatively rare and mild illness.
To understand about the malaria symptoms and treatment we now go for the clinical features of different types of malaria.

General Malaria Symptoms :

There is some variation in malaria produced by different plasmodium but in all cases – chills, fever, head pains, muscle pains, splenomegaly and anaemia are common. Sometimes Harpes labialis may appear.

Malaria Transmission Cycle

Malaria Transmission Cycle

The malarial Paroxysm which recurs in all cases of malaria, except falciparum infection, and it may be called thehallmark of malaria. The typical paroxysm begins with rigor (sudden sense of chilliness, stiffness) for 20 to 60 minutes followed by high temperature for 3 to 8 hours and then effervescence with profuse perspiration (sweating) leaving the patient exhausted.
The febile paroxysms of malaria are of following stages: –
i) the cold stage is about 20 minutes to one hour.
ii) The hot stage is about 1 to 4 hours.
iii) This sweating stage is about 2 to 3 hours.
It is to be noted that the paroxysms recurs every hard day in tertian fever and every fourth day in quartan fever.

Symptoms in Tertian malaria: –

The prodrome of myalgia, headache, chilliness and low-grade fever for 48 to 72 hours heralds the onset of typical paroxysms which occur on alternate days. But in the case of double infection with two maturation cycles, in which daily chills can occur. Such type of double infection synchronizes in a week and then follows the classic tertian pattern.

Symptoms in Quartan malaria: –

In this type of infection paroxysms occur every third day, unless multiple infections alter the cycle initially and chills occur on two out of three or even daily until the cycles synchronize. Quartan malaria is a more disabling infection than the tertian malaria. Oedema, albuminuria and haematuria, a clinical state similar to acute haemorrhagic nepenthes may occasionally appear.

Symptoms of Estivoautumnal malaria: –

In this case of severe disease, agglutinated masses of parasitized erythrocytes block capillaries throughout the whole body. There is some state of asynchronization of the cycle of multiplication. Typical malarias paroxysms occur but continuous remittent or irregular fever is present in many cases.
In the study of malaria symptoms and treatment it is essential to know the diagnosis process of a malaria case.

Diagnosis of malaria: –

diagnosis of malaria is done by the intermittent nature of fever, bilious vomiting, coated tongue, jaundice, hepato- splenomegaly anaemia and by demonstration of malarial parasites and gametocyte in a thick and thin blood films should be properly stained to settle the diagnosis. If the test give negative result, routine leucocyte count, haemoglobin estimation and using examination is necessary. Lumbar puncture may be done to exclude viral or pyogenic meningitis. Other investigations may be necessary such as serum bilirubin, blood urea, blood culture and even X-ray of skull.

We have discussed above the malaria symptoms and treatment with homoeopathic medicine with some therapeutic hints is given below:

Homoeopathic therapeutic hints for malaria: –

It should be taken in mind that the malignant malaria is a medical emergency and prompt, energetic and effective treatment is required to save the life of the patient. Hospitalisation may be necessary in such case. We are giving here some therapeutic hints to treat malaria patient, but it should be done under proper medical supervision.
i) Specially at the commencement of the disease when there is any doubt in regard choice of a remedy Ipecac may be given. It is specially indicated if large dosages of quinine and been given, or if the fever commences with an internal chill which gets worse in the one. There may observed clean or slightly coated tongue, nausea and vomiting and oppression of the chest immediately before the attack.
ii) At the onset of paroxysms the extremities feel as if paralyzed and chill and heat are mingled, one being felt externally, the other internally with fear of being uncovered in the least even during the hot and sweating stages external warmth gave no relief – in such case Nux vom works very well.
iii) In all cases of malaria suppressed by large quantities of quinine Arsenic is a great medicine. Time of fever – 1 PM to 2 PM or 12 to 2 AM is an indication of this medicine. Great prostration of strength, burning pains in the stomach, insupportable pains in the limbs, pain all over the body, anxiety and restlessness, excessive thirst, drinking often but in little amount at a time, bitter taste in the mouth, violent headache also indicates this homoeopathic medicine.
iv) When the paroxysm begins generally towards midday, with intense thirst long before the chill, but no thirst as chill increases or during heat, the thirst begins after the fever subsides, and increases when the sweat begins, exhausting night sweats followed by ringing of the ear—in such case use China as a remedy.
There also have many more remedies may be used as per symptoms. Magnetic therapy may also boost up the process of cure. We have just discussed above about malaria symptoms and treatment. Next we shall try to give you some idea about Malignant Maleria.