The Pancreas






A large gland present in close relationship to the duodenum and stomach is the pancreas. It lies obliquely on the posterior abdominal wall, partly to the right of the median plane, and partly to the left. The head is called to the enlarged right end, and the next to the head there is a short, constricted part called the neck. The body is called the main part of the gland which is continuous to the neck. And the tailis called to the left extremity of the pancreas.





The neck and body are separated from stomach by the lasers sac. That lies in the lienorenal ligament and its tip comes in contact with the spleen. A projection arising from the lower left part of the head is called the uncinate process of the pancreas. The head and neck of the pancreas have anterior and posterior surface. The head and neck of the pancreas have Anterior and posterior surfaces. The body has three surfaces. The anterior surface faces anteriorly and upwards. The inferior surface faces downwards and somewhat towards. The posted year surface faces backwards. The anterior and interior surfaces meet at the anterior border; the anterior and posterior surfaces at the soup with your border; and the interior and posterior surfaces meet at the inferior border. A part of the body projects up words beyond the laser curvature of the stomach and comes in contact with the laser omentum. This projection is called the tuber omentale. With this preliminary orientation we can now proceed to consider the other relationship of the pancreas which are as follows.

The Pancreas

The Pancreas


The pancreas is placed in front of the inferior vena cava, the abdominal aorta, and the left kidney. The hate of the pancreas is placed in front of the inferior vena cava. The aorta is related to the right end of the body. Between the abdominal aorta and the late kidney the body of the pancreas lies on the left crus of the diaphragm, the late suprarenal gland, and the left renal vessels.

The superior mesenteric artery arises from the about the aorta deep to the pancreas. Lower down the artery lies in front of the uncinate process which intervenes between the superior mesenteric artery and the abdominal aorta.

The relationship of the pancreas to the superior mesenteric and splenic veins as they joined to form the portal vain may be seen. Note that the portal vein lies behind the neck of the pancreas, intervening between it and the inferior vena cava. The splenic vein lies behind the body of the pancreas, partially separating it from the other structures behind it.

In order to understand the anterior relations of the pancreas redefines as to be made to its peritoneal relations. The posted your edge of the greater omentum and the upper end of the transfers mesocolon are attached to the anterior aspect of the pancreas. On the body of the pancreas the attachment is along the anterior border. The anterior surface is covered by peritoneum continuous with the anterior of the two layers forming the greater omentum, and lies in the posterior wall of the lesser sac. The inferior surface is lined by peritoneum continuous with the posterior layer of the transfers mesocolon. It is related to the greater sac




Ducts of the pancreas
Secretions of pancreas are poured into the duodenum through two ducts.
a) The main pancreatic duct begins in the tail of the pancreas, and passes to the right through the body. At the neck of the pancreas turns downwards and backwards and ends by joining the bile duct just outside the duodenal wall. The walls of the bile and the main pancreatic ducts join each other here, but a lumina remain separate as the ducts descend cruder muscle wall and submucosa of the duodenum. Usually that to ducts Unite a short distance above the major duodenal papilla formed the hepatopancreatic ampulla. They may, however, have separate openings on the papilla stop the terminal part of the main pancreatic duct is surrounded by the sphincter pancreaticus.
b) The accessory pancreatic duct begins in the lower part of the aid of the pancreas . It runs up words crossing in front of the main duct and opens into the duodenum and my node duodenal papilla. The main than accessory pancreatic ducts usually anastomose with each other. Occasionally that duodenal and the accessory duct may be blind. In this case the duct drains to the anastomosis with the main duct. The accessory duct may be surrounded near its termination by a sphincter.




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